Mindfulness is being introduced into most every major sector of society, including education, medicine, business, government, and the military. An important distinction regarding control over mind-wandering that is often made in mindfulness training programs is attempting to suppress thoughts versus allowing thoughts to pass away without elaborating, judging, or analyzing them. For instance, using standardized measures of academic performance, some research teams have observed improvements after a brief mindfulness intervention. Many published mindfulness interventions do already include extensive didactic instruction of various mindsets related to mindfulness. However, mindfulness training may also influence mind-wandering and academic achievement indirectly by reducing levels of negative affect or by changing students’ mindsets about their ability to control their attention. Strategies for reducing mind-wandering have immense practical significance given the robust relationship between mind-wandering and impaired task performance. Achieving stable improvements in mind-wandering may therefore require both an adaptive mindset as well as practices that enhance attentional control.