Racial Practices in the Classroom: White Faculty’s Pedagogical Enactments That Reproduce and/or Transform White Dominance
Whiteness, like race itself, is both a social construction and a lived reality, a subjective experience and a set of objective power structures and relationships. As we focus on whiteness and white dominance, we refer to a set of social forces beyond the individual and beyond a conscious belief in white supremacy. White supremacy and racial prejudice seldom are taught explicitly, but as Bonilla-Silva (2006) argues, covert socialization into white dominance occurs rather universally. Although many white people do not hold or express prejudicial or supremacist attitudes, they nevertheless are affected by and reﬂect their white and privileged racial standing in their behaviors (Doane 2003; Lewis 2002). Assumptions rooted in white hegemony and privilege are acted on by individuals (consciously or
unconsciously) and integrated into the policies and practices of social institutions (Feagin 2000; Feagin and Feagin 1986; Omi and Winant 1994).