chapter  5
New urban forms: the distinctive character of the European metropolis
ByFrancesco Indovina
Pages 9

The case of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, is a clear example of the conflicts and challenges posed by the coexistence of these shopping centres with traditional shopping areas and streets, known as bazaars. The emergence of shopping malls in major Turkish metropolitan areas has run parallel to the urbanization of Turkish society, especially in relation to consumption patterns and preferences. The transition from traditional markets in squares or plazas and retail shops to general stores, department stores, supermarkets and, later, shopping malls, accompany different phases in the transformation of city life and urban fabric. Beyond urban and morphological changes, the development of shopping centres in Ankara has had a significant social impact because consumers using these new spaces are clearly separated from those frequenting traditional shopping street areas. The profiles of these two major consumer groups are different in age, gender, occupation, education, place of residence and spatial behaviour.