In order to provide optimal care, all health organizations and providers should become familiar and consider the unique healthcare needs of women Veterans, and become familiar with Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) resources to best serve them. This chapter presents an overview of sexual health, social support, and family issues associated with military service that are emerging as important considerations in providing care for military women. Recent wars in the Middle East have called attention not only to the courage and sacrifice of those serving in the US Armed Forces but to the emerging numbers and roles of military women. Individuals interested in serving our country may choose to pursue a full-time role as an active-duty service member, or a part-time role within the Reserves or National Guard (RNG). RNG service women will have decreased interface with military peers; peers who might note and respond to post-deployment functioning or readjustment concerns observable in daily work and living environments.