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Introduction: Indulgences a er Luther: Pardons in Counter-Reformation

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Indulgences still have the power to excite debate. In July 2013, e Guardian newspaper reported that Pope Francis had granted an indulgence to the faithful who followed his Twitter account during the World Youth Day event held in Rio de Janeiro that month. Catholics and Protestants across the globe entered into heated debates about the meaning and signi cance of indulgences, and the appropriateness of their use in personal salvation. e disputes of ve centuries ago became, for a short time, the discourse of news channels today.