chapter  9
14 Pages

Response Mode, Framing and Information-processing Effects in Risk Assessment

ByPaul Slovic, Baruch Fischhoff, Sarah Lichtenstein

A chapter on framing by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) demonstrated that normatively inconsequential changes in the formulation of choice problems significantly affect preferences. These effects are noteworthy because they are sizable (sometimes complete reversals of preference), because they violate important tenets of rationality, and because they influence not only behavior but also how the consequences of behavior are experienced. These perturbations are traced (in prospect theory; see Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) to the interaction between the manner in which acts, contingencies and outcomes are framed in decision problems and to general propensities for treating values and uncertainty in nonlinear ways.