A fter the contributions of Bacon and Descartes in the 1500s and 1600s, the use of the scientific method became increasingly common for studying the world of natural phenomena. As explained in Chapter 3, the founders of modern physical sciences no
longer relied on logic and reason alone in their efforts to understand nature. As the strategies of modern science became available, the fields of physics, chemistry, and biology began to develop independently from philosophy. By the end of the 1700s, they had become distinct branches of science. By the 1800s, this transition also began for the social sciences, including the field of psychology.