A number of additional theoretical essays, concepts, interpretative writings, and explanatory formulations were developed by mass communication scholars during the last half of the twentieth century. In each case, these formulations represented efforts to describe, under-
stand, and explain either a narrow and specific process, an effect of the constantly changing system of mass communication, or a broad intellectual perspective for viewing the media. In many ways, this body of writings continues to offer valuable insights as to the nature of the mass media, how their operations and functions were shaped within their societies at various points in time, and the consequences that they appeared to be having on the populations that they were serving. The value of such insights is that they help in understanding how the political, economic, and cultural features of a society often shape the nature of some specific influence of mass communication content or the media that develop within them.