chapter  17
9 Pages


WithStephen Phillips

This chapter surveys high points of Nyāya composition along with core positions and arguments throughout the philosophic school’s long history of almost two thousand years to the modern period. Nyāya has an externalist theory of knowledge focused on knowledge-generators called pramāṇa, but embraces internalist methods of justification. The fundamental metaphysical commitment is to a realism of objects that exist and are what they are independently of knowings and perceivings. The school develops a rational theology and an epistemic view of inference along with a technical vocabulary of analysis that has broad impact upon late classical Indian civilization.