chapter  6
OVERJUSTIFICATION RESEARCH AND BEYOND: TOWARD A MEANS-ENDS ANALYSIS OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Mark R. Lepper and David Greene
Pages 40

In the many years since Thorndike’s formulation of his “ Law of Effect” (1911) an enormous amount of research has been devoted to the study of the manner in which rewards increase, and punishments decrease, the subsequent probability of responses that precede them. Recently, however, psychologists have begun to ask a quite different question, one concerning the effects of “ extrinsic” rewards on “ intrinsic” motivation as indicated by a person’s subsequent attitude toward the activity, willingness to engage in that activity in the later absence of extrinsic contingencies,and/or the quality of performance while engaged in the activity. The resulting experimental literature suggests that when a person engages in an intrin­ sically interesting activity, under certain conditions, the imposition of super­ fluous extrinsic rewards may have detrimental effects on his or her intrinsic motivation (Condry, 1977; Deci, 1975; Kruglanski, 1975; Lepper & Greene, 1976; Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973; Ross, 1976).