Diagnostic and treatment approaches associated with functional gastroduodenal disorders
This chapter reviews the current research findings relating to functional gastroduodenal disorders (FGDs). It reviews the current interventions, including dietary, pharmacological and psychological treatments, in relation to their efficacy in FGDs. In the Rome IV classification, FGDs are classified into functional dyspepsia (FD), belching disorders, nausea and vomiting disorders, and rumination syndrome. Both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and FD patients demonstrate greater activation of homeostatic-afferent and sensory brain regions to visceral stimuli, such as rectal distension or painful gastric distention, than healthy subjects. FD symptoms commonly occur following the consumption of food, which is a significant sensory stimulus to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Fad diets should be avoided, as should over-restriction. Functional dyspepsia has received the most research in regards to psychological interventions. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been done that focus on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions.