Introduction to Part II: shifting boundaries, the modern state, and new cosmopolitanism
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This chapter focuses more on the strategies and international behaviour of the Chinese state and, therefore, issues of governance than the Chinese citizenry or civil society organizations. In so doing, and to help answer the above questions, two aspects of global governance, Internet regulation and economic cooperation, two issues of paramount national interest to both authoritarian and democratic states, are employed to illustrate how contra-flow and norm-diffusion work at the international level of politics today. In the field of global economic governance, there is more convergence on the merits of a particular kind of openness: a liberal economic trading order. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's piercing remarks on Internet freedom in January 2010 were primarily directed at China, Iran, and Russia, who continue to strengthen their already firm control over their respective communication systems. The rhetoric on Internet freedom and Internet sovereignty differs substantially between authoritarian and democratic countries. Real-world practices, however, reveal another story.