chapter
5 Pages

Index

Note: Page numbers in italics represent tables Page numbers in bold represent figures Page numbers followed by ‘n’ refer to notes

abortion 83-4, 84 acquis communautaire (EU) 54, 66 activism: street 95 anchoring 10; Bulgaria 29-32; Poland 14-17;

Slovakia 21-5 authoritarianism 8, 9

Barroso, J.M. 16, 65, 66 Bélanger, E.: and Pétry, F. 76, 77, 78 Beneš decrees 81 Bernhagen, P.: and Marsh, M. 110 Berov, L. 28 bias: East/West 110; electoral participation

101-3, 116; policy preference 103-6, 105, 106; political participation 96; representative 96; socio-democratic 101-3, 102, 104, 110, 116

Bodnar, A. 13 Borissov, B. 29 Bulgaria 8-9; anchoring 29-32; Borissov

29; BSP 26-7; consolidation through institutions and political elite 26-33; Constitution (1991) 27, 29, 30; Constitutional Court 30-1, 51-2; cooperation and verification of progress mechanism (CVM/MCV) 32, 42, 63, 64; corruption in judiciary 56; decommunisation 27; Dimitrov and UDF 27, 28; economic transformation 28; elections (1990) 26-7; elections (1994) 28; elections (1997) 29; EU role 31-2; European Commission 43; immunity of MPs and judiciary 59; inclusive legitimacy 33; instability (1996-7) 28; institutional safeguards for judiciary 51; Judges Association 64; judicial council 41, 48; Kostov government 29, 32, 33n;

legitimacy 26-9; lustration 27, 30; party system 29; performance legitimacy 26; performative legitimacy 33; political parties 29, 30; problems drafting new constitution 27; satisfaction with democracy 26, 27; Saxe-Coburg Gotha 28, 29, 30, 33n, 59; Schengen accession 57n; short-cut to habituation 30; Supreme Judicial Council 51; two turn-over test 33; UDF polarisation 27; Videnov 31-2

Bulgarian Helsinki Committee 64

Charter of Fundamental Rights: Article 6 (death penalty) 85; Hungary 66

Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986) 88 church restitution 87-8, 88 citizens 76; poor policy choices 74; post-

communist 75-6, 95, 96; public opinion 73-4

coalition 21 Coman, R. 3, 40-68; and Tomini, L. 1-4 communism: citizen activism at demise

of 95 communism collapse 48n; judicial reform

challenges after 47, see also postcommunism

conditionality 46-7, 54, 57, 60 consolidation see democratic consolidation Constitutional Courts 45; Bulgaria 30-1,

51-2; Czech Republic 56n, 61; Hungary 45n, 50; judicial independence 45; Poland 14; Romania 52; Slovakia 22

Converse, P. 74 cooperation and verification of progress

mechanism (CVM) 32 Copenhagen Summit (EU, 1993) 53

Council of Europe (CoE) 54 Czech Republic 3-4; abortion 83-4, 84; bad

mood 87; Committee for the Protection of Unjustified Investigated Persons 48n; Constitutional Court 56n, 61; corruption 60; direct election law (2012) 90; elections (2010) 88; Euroscepticism 80; High Judicial Council 55; lack of judicial council 41, 53; lustration 48; malpractice in justice system report (2011) 61; number of judges 48n; Open Society Institute 55; radar treaty with US 82-3; Sudeten Germans 81, see also public opinion in Czech Republic

Czechoslovakia: division 18; fall of regime 8; Velvet Revolution 79

Cześnik, M. 95

death penalty 85-6, 86 Delli Carpini, M.X.: and Keeter, S. 74, 75 democracy theory: post-communism threats to

74 democratic anchoring see anchoring democratic citizens 76 democratic consolidation: EU role 2, 7-36;

length 7-8; process 10; theory 9-10; three dimensions 8

democratic erosion 7 democratic genus 2 democratic rule: threats theory 74 Democratic Union of Hungarians from

Romania 52 democratisation: forgotten dimension 2; third

wave 9 Dimitrov, P. 27, 28 disenchantment 108 distrust: of judiciary 41; political participation

107 Dzurinda, M. 21-4

East/West bias: in political participation 110 elections: Bulgaria 26-7, 28, 29; Czech

Republic 88, 90; Poland 11, 12, 13, 14, 96; Slovakia 19, 21, 25; turnout rates 97, see also political participation

electoral abstention: representative bias 96 environmentalism 89 Euro: Czech Republic support for joining 81,

81; Slovakia adoption 25 European Commission 43; Democracy

through Law 66; legal action against Hungary (2012) 65-6; twinning

European Social Survey (ESS) 97 European Union (EU): acquis communautaire

54, 66; anchoring democracy 24-5; Bulgaria’s role 31-2; Copenhagen Summit (1993) 53; Czech Republic membership support 79-81, 80; democratic consolidation role 7-36; indicator of democratic consolidation 8; judicial independence condition 43; judicial reform impact 53-60; judicial reform model lack 54; and Poland 15-16; and Slovakia 24, 25

European Values Survey (EVS) 18n, 26n Europeanisation: gate-keeping 60; impact on

policies 46; judicial reforms 43-7; resistances 3

Euroscepticism 2; Czech Republic 80; Poland 16

euthanasia 85-6, 86

Fico, R. 18, 21, 24 Fidesz 65 foreign policy 79-83 forgotten dimension 2 Freedom in the World project 93

Ganev, V. 27, 28, 30, 31, 33 Garlicki, L. 49 gate-keeping 60 GESIS Data Archive 12, 18n, 20, 26n, 27n governance: self-judicial 48 Greece: bailout (2011) 25

Haider, J. 17 Hammerslev, V. 46 Havel, V. 81, 87, 90 helplessness: learned 75 Highton, B.: and Wolfinger, R.E. 97 Hilbink, C.: and Woods, P. 45 homosexuality 84-5, 85 Hungary: Charter of Fundamental Rights 66;

Constitutional Court 45n, 50; distrust of judiciary 41; EC legal action against (2012) 65-6; Fidesz 65; Fundamental Law 65; invisible constitution 50-1; judicial council 41; judicial reform 3; judicial selfadministration 51; Legal Status and Remuneration of Judges Act (2001) 51; National Council of Justice 51; National Judicial Council (NJC) 41, 65; new constitution 2; Orbán government 7, 36, 65; Organisation and Administration of Courts Act (2001) 51; political participation 109;

Hus, J. 88 hybrid regimes 2

identity: national 20 Ilieva, M. 64 inclusive legitimacy 33 inclusivity 10 Indzhova, R. 28 instability 28 institutions 11-17; international 45; judicial

40 International Bar Association: Human Rights

Institute 63 international institutions: judicial

independence role 45

Jablonski, A.W. 15 judges: accusations of incompetence 61;

appointment 61; politicisation of 55 judicial council 41; Bulgaria 41, 48; criticism

61; Romania 48 judicial independence 40-68; condition of

EU membership 43, 46-7; Constitutional Courts 45; European incentives 46; party competition 44; role of international institutions 45; sine qua non condition (2002) 56; socio-economic conditions 45

judicial institutions: recent history 40 judicial reform: challenges after communism

collapse 47; Europeanisation 43-7; Hungary 3; lack of EU model 54; political analysis 43-7; two paths 42, 44; unresolved puzzle 40; wave 1 (1990s) 47-53; wave 2 – differential impact of EU 53-60; wave 3 – excessive independence 60-7; when and how 44; working conditions 48

judiciary: corruption 56; distrust of 41; politicisation 56

justice: social 76

Kaczyński, J.: government (Poland) 7, 11, 13, 17, 33, 35, 36, 61

Keeter, S.: and Delli Carpini, M.X. 74, 75 Kitschelt, H. 76 Klaus, V. 61, 86, 90 Klingemann, H.-D. 95 Kluegel, J.: and Mason, D. 76 Kostelka, F. 4, 93-116 Kostov, I. 28, 29, 32, 33n Kwaśniewski, A. 14, 50

land reform 47n

Linz, J. 9; and Stepan, A. 9, 28 Liphart, A. 110 Lisbon Treaty (2007): Slovakia debate 25 Lustranci zakony 48n lustration: Bulgaria 27, 30; Czech Republic

48; Poland 62

McAllister, I.: and White, S. 96 McManus-Czubińska, C. 96, 97, 103 magistrates 48n Malová, D. 22 market economy: Czech Republic 86-7, 87;

Poland 13 Marsh, M.: and Bernhagen, P. 110 Mason, D.S. 95; and Kluegel, J. 76 Mečiar, V. 21; government (Slovakia) 7, 8, 19,

20, 22, 33 Meseznikov, G. 19 Miller, W.L. 75 minority rights 1 mob rule 74 mood theory 78 Morlino, L. 10, 14, 25, 33

national identity 20 nationalism: ambiguous role 1 Nĕmec, P. 61 new democracies: unconventional political

realm 94n Nicholson, E. 58 nuclear energy 88-9, 89

Obama, B. 82 O’Donnell, G. 9 Olechowski, A.M. 14 Open Society Institute 55 Orbán, V. 45n; government (Hungary) 7, 36,

55, 65

Page, B.: and Shapiro, R. 74-8 Pankowski, R. 17 Parkanová, V. 82 participation see political participation paternalism: state 75 performance legitimacy 18, 26 performative legitimacy 33 Pétry, F.: and Bélanger, E. 76, 77, 78 pluralism 18 Poland: anchoring 14-17; authoritarianism 8,

9; Central Bank 14; Constitution (1997) 13, 15, 50; Constitution (small – 1992) 14; Constitutional Court 14; Constitutional

elections (2001) 96; elections (2005) 13, 14; elections (2007) 14; elections (2011) 12, 14; and EU 15-16; EU and NATO membership hope 6; Euroscepticism 16; judicial council 41; Kaczyński government 7, 11, 13, 17, 33, 35, 36, 62; Law and Justice 62; legitimation 11-14; lustration 62; market economy 13; National Council of Judiciary 49, 55, 62; National Council of the Judiciary Act 63; partial conclusions 17; party competition 12; PiS party 14, 16, 17, 62; PO party 14, 17; political fragmentation 14; political participation 14; political parties 14, 15; presidential systems 14-15; satisfaction with democracy 11, 12; self-judicial governance 48; Socialist Party (SLD) 11-12, 14, 17; Solidarity (AWS) 11-12, 13, 14, 17; struggle around institutions and belated consolidation 11-17; uklad witch-hunt 13-14

political knowledge 74-5; lack of 74 political participation 4; causes of trends

106-10; citizen activism at demise of communism 95; comparing participants to whole population 97; compulsory 94; definition 93-4; demobilisation 95; distrust 107; East/West bias 110; electoral abstention and bias 96; electoral participation bias-socio-demographic composition 116; high 94; Hungary 109; low 94; mobilisation structures 108; non-electoral 100-1; non-electoral (2002-10) 100; non-electoral East-West gap 101; number of electoral contests 109; observations 95; Poland 14; policy preference bias 103-6, 105, 106; poll-and media-driven era 96; post-communist citizens 95; post-communist democracies 93-116; pre-communist legacy 107; regime change – street activism 95; ritualised engagement 94; socio-democratic bias 101-3, 102, 104, 110; socio-demographic characteristics 115; socio-economic factors 110; study data and methods 97-8; voter turnout rates (1998-2011) 114; voting decline theory 108; voting turnout evolution 98-9, 99; voting turnout trends 99

political party: competition and independent judiciary 44

politicisation: of judges 55; of judiciary 56 Polity project 93

93-116; democracy and citizen engagement 96; public opinion 74; threats to democracy theory 74

presidential elections: Czech Republic 89-90, 90

presidential systems: Poland 14-15 Pridham, G. 7, 9, 10 public opinion: change in 74; citizens as poor

guides 73-4; mood theory 78; political knowledge 74-5; post-communism 74

public opinion in Czech Republic 73-91; abortion 83-4, 84; Beneš decrees 81, 82; change determinants 78-9, 79; change explanation 78-9; change reasonableness and manipulation 79; changes 77, 77; church restitution 87-8, 88; death penalty 85-6; direct presidential elections 89-90, 90; domestic policy 86-90; EU membership 79-81; euthanasia 85-6, 86; foreign policy 79-83; methods 76-7; nuclear energy 88-9, 89; radar 82-3, 83; rights for same-sex couples 84-5, 85; Russian agent interference 83n; social issues 83-6; stability and change 77-8; stable citizens 90-1; structure of economy 86-7, 87; support for EU membership 80, 80; support for joining Euro 81, 81

radar 82-3, 83 reform: land 47n, see also judicial reform representative bias: electoral abstention 96 resistances: Europeanisation 3 rights: minority 1; for same-sex couples 84-5,

85 ritualised engagement: political participation

94 Roberts, A. 3-4, 73-91 Romania: Constitution (1991) 52;

Constitutional Court 52; cooperation and verification of progress mechanism (CVM/MCV) 32, 42, 63, 64; corruption in judiciary 56; and European Commission 43; European Commission and CSM 56; judicial council 41-2, 48; judicial mobilisation 58; judicial system reports (2003 & 2004) 58; land reform cases 47n; magistrates (2007) 48n; politicisation of judiciary (2001) 56; Schengen accession 57n; Superior Council of Magistracy 52; Superior Council of Magistracy – empowerment 56-8; Superior Council of Magistracy – twinning

Rose, R. 95

Safjan, M. 63 same-sex couples: rights 84-5, 85 satisfaction with democracy: Bulgaria 26, 27;

Poland 11, 12; Slovakia 18, 20 Saxe-Coburg Gotha, S. 28, 29, 30, 33n, 59 Schedler, A. 9-10 Schengen accession: Romania and Bulgaria

57n Schönfleder, B. 51, 56, 61 self-judicial governance 48 Shapiro, R.: and Page, B. 74-8 sine qua non condition: judicial independence

56 Slovakia: anchoring 21-5; assembly

government 22; coalition of coalition 21; Constitution (1992) 22; Constitution – amendments (1999 & 2001) 22; Constitutional Court 22; Dzurinda 21-4; elections (1994) 19, 21; elections (1998) 21, 25; end of European consensus 25; EU accession 25; EU as anchor 24; Euro adoption 25; European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) 25; externally driven process of consolidation 17-26; Fico 18, 21, 24; HZDS 18, 19, 21, 24, 34; institutional system 22; legitimation 18-20, 19; and Lisbon Treaty 25; Mečiar government 7, 8, 19, 20, 22, 33; national identity 20; partial conclusions 25-6; party system 21; pluralism 18; political parties 18, 21; president and prime minister 22; rule of law 18; satisfaction with democracy 18, 20; SMER 21

Socialist Party (SLD) 11-12, 14, 17 socio-democratic bias 101-3, 102, 104, 110,

116 socio-economic conditions: judicial

independence 45 Solidarity (AWS): Poland 11-12, 13, 14, 17 Solt, P. 51 stability 9; and change 77-8; democratic 9 Staniou, R. 59 state paternalism 75 Stepan, A.: and Linz, J. 9, 28 Stoica, V. 47 street activism 95 Suchocka, H. 49 Sudeten Germans 81

Temelin nuclear plant 89 Tomini, L. 3, 7-36; and Coman, R. 1-4 Topolánek, M. 82 twinning programmes (EC) 54

uklad witch-hunt (Poland) 13-14

Vastagh, P. 51 Velvet Revolution (Czechoslovakia) 79 Verba, S. 94, 94n Videnov, Z. 31-2

Walesa, L. 14, 49, 50 White, S.: and McAllister, I. 96 Wolfinger, R.E.: and Highton, B. 97 Woods, P.: and Hilbink, C. 45

Ziobro, Z. 62