Do adults and children process information in the same way? How does the human brain mature over development? And how does learning change the structure and function of a child’s brain? These are just a few of the questions that can be addressed through the use of non-invasive neuroimaging methods. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that uses neuroscientific methods to examine how changes in brain structure and function relate to cognitive, social and perceptual development. In the last thirty years, the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience has blossomed with the advent of many different neuroimaging techniques (see Figure 3.1).