chapter  28
Direct Sounds, Language Swaps, and Directors’ Cuts
The Quest for Fidelity in the Film Soundtrack 1
ByEmile Wennekes
Pages 12

Adapting a sound film whose main attraction was spoken or sung words was enormously more problematic. This chapter addresses some of those problems and the challenges that were faced by filmmakers in countries where the language of Hollywood film was 'foreign.' It addresses sound in film, not in television or games, which occasionally show deviations. The chapter focuses on movies with a grown-up audience. Multigenerational films or films primarily addressing the young may differ in their approach, as children cannot read fast to adequately deal with subtitles. For these young target audiences, even in 'subtitling countries', a decisive number of multigenerational, family movies are dubbed. 'Original' could be used in the sense of being the prototype or 'authentic,' primary production, the cut authorized in the first instance by the director, as compared to the derivatives that are distributed outside of the 'home' or source-language market.