This chapter argues that the extant literature likely has overestimated some risks associated with Pakistans seminaries while underestimating or even failing to identify more empirically supportable threats associated with Pakistans educational landscape. Militant groups could become more dependent upon madrasah students over time if militant recruitment standards change or if the militant recruitment market changes. Against the vocal assertions that madaris are instruments of mass instruction and comprise an essential element of militant production in Pakistan and elsewhere, several scholarly articles as well as editorial pieces have sought to add a corrective view to the madrasah policy fixation. Tariq Rahman's results demonstrate that madrasah students are consistently more likely to support war against India and the use of militants in Kashmir and are less likely to support equal rights for Pakistan's minorities and women. madaris may not create pro-militancy students, but rather pro-militancy families may choose to send their children to madaris.