Among the key debates fought in developing economies is whether globalization through liberalization is the means by which economies can industrialize and provide their labour forces with tangible improvements in the material conditions of living. This book addresses this issue head on, using empirical evidence from some of the fastest growing and transition economies from East and South Asia. Countries such as the Philippines and Malaysia have already started to deindustrialize before enjoying industrial maturity, while with the exception of China and evidence of some growth in real wages in the other economies, the evidence appears compelling to suggest that increased industrialization and integration into the capitalist economy have not succeeded in providing significant labour improvement. The evidence suggests that a proactive state, focusing on enhancing the material conditions of labour, is pertinent to ensuring sustainable long term industrialization and thus improving material conditions for workers. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.