This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book presents diverse and constructive perspectives on the relationships and on creating constructive dialogues between the learning sciences (LS) and instructional design and technology (IDT) communities. It highlights several key concepts and issues raised by the authors, and project ways to continue the discourse in the constructive articulation between the two communities. The book describes a historical overview, added insights into contemporary learning research, and discussed the cognitive architecture of learning including details of schema-based learning and model-based learning. It discusses the dynamic relationships between LS and IDT. It argues that the separation between instructional design and educational evaluation has contributed to a lack of progress of theory and practice in both areas. The book outlines the concept of educational blueprints, which may include things such as knowledge structures, learning progressions, assessment frameworks, and analyses of learner characteristics or profiles.