Both Learning Sciences (LS) and Instructional Design (ID) draw on Foundations in psychology, cognitive science, and related disciplines. Foundations include basic scientific findings and theories that would influence the effectiveness of any design. From these foundations, one infers or supports prescriptive principles for design of the learning environment. Based on the foundations and blueprints, either an LS or an ID process designs new Inputs to the learning process. Three areas of common interest and challenge, which are particularly in need of collaboration of LS and ID, if the state of the art is to advance: learning of domain knowledge, assessment, and scalability. The intensification of learning expectations focuses on knowledge, skills, and abilities specific to a domain: in English Language Arts, critical analysis is featured; in mathematics, algebraic reasoning has risen to the fore; and in science, developing foundational understandings and using them in inquiry.