Addressing implications of a phenomenon requires at least some basic understanding of the phenomenon at hand, in this case the existence of two communities with great interest in learning and in supporting learning. In both communities eminent researchers and professionals reflect about what learning is, what it implies, how it occurs in different contexts, and how to design and implement innovative approaches to support learning often with the help of technologies. This reflection gets inspired by an in-depth understanding of learning processes and the impact of context. The overall ambition seems to be shared by both communities; a different underlying logic or ambition seems to drive the two communities. Both communities share a fascination for learning, it is understanding that members of a community of the learning sciences are predominantly interested in understanding learning whereas members of a community of instructional design and technology are rather interested in goal-directed interventions. The individuals can be members of both communities.