The incidence and prevalence of traumatic brain injury is known to be high in Western countries and in low and middle economy countries. The understanding of the incidence and prevalence of neurobehavioural disability is therefore limited and it is likely that many are not routinely referred for specialist neurorehabilitation. To advance the understanding of incidence and prevalence of neurobehavioural disability, the long awaited demand for services for brain injury to be systematic and co-ordinated from the point of post-acute care to the community needs to be implemented. The continuing trends towards greater longevity in the general population brings with it the potential for survival to an older age in people with neurobehavioural disability. Translational research from laboratory and post mortem studies of single cases and case series have aroused concern that neuropathological changes may lead to long term neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, even following repeated mild concussion.