chapter  8
12 Pages

Institutional diversity


This chapter sums up the empirical research results and evaluates the findings in the light of institutional diversity. It is obvious that the different cases analysed throughout this book have different aspects in ongoing institutional diversification. Therefore, the four topics cannot be compared on the same level. Whilst urban resource pools are the most common examples of self-organised usage terms, the case of labour markets is far more difficult to understand than the self-organised approach. Commonly, labour market policies are an aspect of national policymaking. Their special feature is their form of market that actively pronounces the classic distinction between markets and governments. Whereas self-organisation is a specific institutional setting beyond this paradigmatic dichotomy, labour markets are one side of this distinction. However, the endeavour of labour market policies indicates that governmental interventions sustain and support the market itself. This is commonplace for any market that is in a dependent relationship with state structures. Above all, the state has to ensure the market’s survival by frameworks and by rulesets. At this point, it becomes understandable that, whilst self-organised resource systems are an institutional alternative to markets or hierarchies, the labour market is – after all – a market. Therefore, the research evaluates different institutional settings for a market-based system.