Critical race theory (CRT) is a framework that centralizes race, racism, and power in the examination of phenomena. The focus of the phenomena can be as localized as interactions among individuals (Chapman, 2007) or as expansive as education policy (Gillborn, 2013). As stated by Ladson-Billings (2013), who introduced CRT to education in 1995, critical race theory violates the “race, class, and gender triumvirate” that is prevalent in social science theorizing, and instead makes “race the axis of understanding inequity and injustice in the US” (p. 34). CRT considers issues addressed by ethnic studies, multiculturalism, and civil rights, but from a more comprehensive, and some argue, critical vantage point (Ladson-Billings, 2013). That is, it
places them [issues] in a broader perspective that includes economics, history, context, group-and self-interest, and even feelings and the unconscious. Unlike traditional civil rights, which stresses incrementalism and step-by-step progress, critical race theory questions the very foundations of the liberal order, including equality theory, legal reasoning, Enlightenment rationalism, and neutral principles of constitutional law.