This chapter focuses on the issues at a time when Alliance for Responsible Mining (ARM) and Fair Trade Labelling Organisations International (FLO) are working diligently to expand their work into sub-Saharan Africa. Looking to build upon their experiences in Latin America, both organisations have piloted projects across sub-Saharan Africa, with the aim of connecting jewellers to its small-scale gold miners. A detailed understanding of the context in which the Fairtrade and Fairmined Gold Standard emerged offers important clues about its potential impact in sub-Saharan Africa. From what has been reported in the literature, it is apparent that there are many differences between the small-scale mining activities found in Latin America and those found in sub-Saharan Africa. Middlemen have been singled out as a major reason why scores of small-scale gold miners become trapped in the aforementioned vicious cycle of poverty.