This chapter traces the decisions that led to the introduction of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). It examines the motivation behind the decision to involve the private sector, and considers if such decision was part of a political ideology, as a result of policy change brought about by the European Union (EU), or due to a lack of public funding. The funding of infrastructure development by the National Development Finance Agency (NDFA) is through long-term debt and equity rather than through alternative means of infrastructure financing. The chapter also traces the timeline leading up to the introduction of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) by referencing the key reports, acts and political decisions made. The National Economic and Social Council highlighted one possible reason for the introduction of PPPs as being the perceived benefits of efficiency gains and expertise not available in the public sector.