Republic of 1918 were re-established in 1991. Institutions and policies have been demo-
cratized, modernized and adapted to the market economy. Latvia became a member of the
EU in 2004. Soviet period policies have been replaced, however, some remnants can still
be found in texts of policy-makers and more often in social memory. Both practises and
policies are path-dependent and carry elements from the past; contemporary landscapes,
human settlements and land use structures are evidences of policies implemented during
the turbulent Latvian history, and thus, a challenge for planners of today.