chapter  3
1 Pages

Limited Europeanization of Spatial Planning and Policy

Various explanations have been suggested for the lack in or limited degree of policy con-

vergence in spatial planning. Fu¨rst (2009), for example, contends that spatial planning pro-

cesses are relatively slow to change and are restrained by high transaction costs. He argues

that policy systems generally change only if the pressure is very strong or if ignoring the

need to change will be met by severe sanctions. Most planning systems are not usually in

this situation: the pressures are not strong enough and resisting change does not incur sanc-

tions or other costs. Here the CEE and especially Baltic structures differ: transition and

several post-transition shocks created a high level of stress.