In the past two or three decades, universities around the world have been pressurized by both government mandates and societal needs to assume an increasing economic role for making more direct contributions to economic development and innovation (Clark, 1998; Etzkowitz, 1990; Etzkowitz et al., 2000). In response to these pressures, universities have tended to become more efficient, productive, and even entrepreneurial, and, in turn, to accordingly expect their academics to change their practices. For example, under the global isomorphism of emulating practices of private sectors, a growing number of countries have introduced ‘new public management’ (Hood, 2000) or ‘new managerialism’ (Clarke and Newman, 1994; Clarke and Newman, 1997) into higher education (Maassen, 2003). Following policies addressing performance-based funding, corporation models of university governance and marketization, many universities’ higher-level administrators have adopted structures and practices ‘commanding ideological overtones of efficiency and effectiveness’ (Townley, 1997, p. 265). All of these studies imply changes and challenges in academic work.