Failure of international relations theories in African tests have hardly been taken seriously by international relations theorists in the core, as long as their theories are robust in the international politics of major powers. Ahmed Ali focus on two North African projects, which are less recognized in Western academia for several reasons, not the least the language barrier, as they are published in Arabic, the main language in North Africa. International Relations in Islam is a comprehensive project of a dedicated group of Cairo University scholars of political science. Ali Mazrui's Cultural Forces in World Politics challenges traditional studies that undermine the roles of culture in international politics. Mona Abul-Fadl coined the concept of polar-Ummah or one universal Muslim faith community. According to Mona Abul-Fadl, civilizational perspective is not only useful for theorizing but also provides a faith community with an authentic reading of its epistemological heritage.