Pedagogy development: transmissive and participatory pedagogies for mass schooling
The first level of education to become compulsory for all children was primary school education, beginning with five-to six-year-old children. It was then extended to the lower secondary school and, finally, compulsory secondary schooling was considered necessary for the education of children and adolescents eventually up to 18 years currently in most Western societies. More recently, mass schooling has been progressively extended to include pre-primary early years in mainstream education. Within Europe, this can mean that children from birth through to six years can find themselves in centre-based, out of home, education and care with compulsory attendance at four, five, six or seven years being dependent on the individual policies of different nations.