chapter  11
18 Pages

Kampo- in wartime Sino-Japanese relations: the Association of East Asian Medicine and the search for a tripartite medical partnership


Kampo-or Kampo-igaku (Kampo-medicine) is the popular term that refers to traditional Japanese medicine, including the prescription of crude drugs, acupuncture, moxibustion, and traditional regimens and eubiotics. It is a neologism which the Japanese used to distinguish their indigenous medicine from Ranpo-

(Dutch medicine) in the late Tokugawa period (1603-1868). However, the usage of the term is also not unanimous among the Japanese. The term is used to refer exclusively to traditional Japanese medicine but also to refer to Chinese medical traditions.1 The Kampo-professionals who appear in this chapter were the latter.2

Kampo sometimes includes traditional Korean medicine and is synonymous with or as a constituent of To-yo-igaku (Eastern or Oriental medicine) or To-a igaku (East Asian medicine).3 Before the end of World War II, inspired by nationalistic sentiment, the alternative term Ko-–Kan igaku (Imperial Japanese-Chinese medicine) sometimes replaced Kampo-to emphasize Japanese uniqueness or originality.4