This chapter discusses the theoretical foundations of growth management in planning. It deals with an historical review of planning ideas about controlling growth before examining the philosophies behind growth management approaches. The chapter also discusses the rise of smart growth as the dominant contemporary approach to managing growth and considers critiques of and challenges to that paradigm and the future of growth management. Growth theories and approaches to growth management have always reflected the times, and the changing needs of capital. During the optimistic Progressive Era, local business and political leaders had ambitious aspirations for growth, but generally lacked the means to implement them. Political scientists promoted "new regionalism" through which local governments would voluntarily collaborate to coordinate regional growth. Smart growth advocated government incentives and alternative regulatory regimes to shape growth in desired ways, but it also adopted some strategies used to control or limit growth.