Neoliberal planning can be understood "as a restructuring of the relationship between private capital owners and the state, which rationalises and promotes a growth-first approach to urban development". The neoliberalization of planning implies a partial retreat by planning as a public institution from its conventional core, namely the improvement of the built and natural environment through some sort of concerted effort. The Society has had regular meetings ever since and established an expansive global 'neoliberal thought collective' over the years in close cooperation with conservative think tanks. The rolling-out of neoliberalism into urban planning was famously abstracted by Harvey (1989) as a transition from urban managerialism to urban entrepreneurialism. Managerial cities were primarily focused on the local provision of services, facilities and benefits to the urban population, while entrepreneurial cities in an age of heightened interurban competition more than ever before had to concentrate on the attraction of investment and employment.