chapter  2
Identifying and assessing pollination deficits in crops
ByBreno M. Freitas, Bernard E. Vaissière, Antonio M. Saraiva, Luísa G. Carvalheiro, Lucas A. Garibaldi and Hien Ngo
Pages 16

The global community remains in an uncertain state with respect to the sustainability of pollination services. Agriculture replaces pollinator habitat with something entirely different, yet grows crops with needs for pollination services often well above the levels that natural systems can provide. Documentation of pollinator-dependent farming systems in both Brazil and in Kenya reveal high numbers of highly toxic pesticides used on target crops and risks to pollinators are quite high, compared to farming systems of the Netherlands. The high diversity of pollinators in ephemeral environments such as agricultural fields also reflects considerable numbers of parasitic bees and bee natural enemies, so that it is somewhat unclear how beneficial the overall bee species richness is for pollination service. Pollination management can continue to improve and refine its scope by focusing on the management of individual bee species, their combination within agro ecosystems, and their seasonal and spatial needs over their life cycle.