Labelling and overshadowing effects
The labelling effect describes cases in which a verbal label is affixed to a stimulus and then exerts its distorting influence in subsequent judgment or recall of that stimulus (cf. the anchoring effect in Chapter 12, the misinformation effect in Chapter 22, and the hindsight bias in Chapter 23). Text box 20.1 lists a number of examples demonstrating labelling effects in different domains. This list already suggests that labelling effects may be rather widespread in our lives. More examples, from more applied domains, are given in Text box 20.2.