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This chapter is an extract from a longer report of research on Newton Aycliffe undertaken with the support of the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust. The chapter entitled Newton Aycliffe: a study of a new town, by Dr P. J. Bowden, comprises on distribution of industry policy, new towns policy, official policy towards Newton Aycliffe and a survey of firms on the industrial estate. The main point is that the industrial estate to which Newton Aycliffe owes its existence stems in part from Government policies to influence the distribution of industry, and partly from the choice of Aycliffe as the site of a wartime ordnance factory. Newton Aycliffe was established in order to provide housing and community services for workers employed on the adjoining industrial estate, while Cumbran in South Wales and Corby in Northamptonshire are also being built close to existing industrial concentrations in order to reduce travel to work.