Advertising in France operates amid a comprehensive and complex set of public laws and professional regulations. In this way, the country’s advertising industry can be distinguished from that of most other democracies in the world; it has developed into a unique system of coregulation. Public regulation in France, as elsewhere, consists of laws enacted by the legislature, decrees and orders of the executive branch, or rules made by independent administrative authorities. The courts adjudicate disputes involving these entities. Private regulation refers to a body of professional rules (standards of practice and ethics) developed by the three branches of the advertising industry-advertisers, advertising agencies, and the media. Since 2008, the Professional Advertising Regulation Authority (Autorité de Régulation Professionnelle de la Publicité, or ARPP)—the successor to the Advertising Verification Bureau (Bureau de Vérification de la Publicité, or BVP)—issues and implements these professional standards and rules.