chapter  3
Characters, Themes, and Narrative Patterns in the Manga of Osamu Tezuka
ByOsamu Tezuka Susanne Phillipps
Pages 23

This chapter examines an overview of the ways in which both members of Aum and commentators on Aum understood the role of manga and anime in relation to Aum. Aum was preoccupied with the development of supernatural powers through the use of yogic practices and meditation. While Asahara's prophecies concerning Harumagedon were relatively optimistic throughout the 1980s, they became increasingly pessimistic in the 1990s. The apocalyptic or cataclysmic themes in manga and anime throughout the 1970s and 1980s must be understood, of course, within a larger context. While Aum at times successfully made use of the mass media to publicize itself, beginning in 1989 the group was involved in a series of confrontations with the Japanese mass media. Aum's view of, as well as use of, manga and anime must be understood in the larger context of its understanding of the mass media.