In the past few years, manga has become quite popular as material for research and education about contemporary Japan. This chapter explains what foreign students of manga are missing when they ignore Japanese secondary sources. It describes common methodological blind spots in writings on manga, paying special attention to the field of Japanese studies. The chapter also illuminates the way in which authors often neglect the aesthetic and cultural ambiguity of manga, which comes in part from a tendency to overlook Japanese manga discourse. It then provides a brief historical survey, focusing on recent tendencies to critically question the primacy of the so-called story-manga as allegedly originated and developed by Osamu Tezuka. The chapter focuses on contesting views within Japanese manga discourse and on the historical ambiguity inherent in manga. Finally, it analyzes inclinations in manga discourse to trace manga back to a purely Japanese premodern pictorial art.