PART I Exploring translation and interpreting
Interest in issues related to gender and sexuality in Translation Studies arose in the 1970, reflecting the rise of the women's movement and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex (LGBT) movements in many Western societies, which occurred simultaneously with the spread of post-structuralist or postmodern theoretical approaches to the study of social identities. Rather than focusing on sexual difference or ecriture feminine, Butler developed the notion of performativity, that is, the idea that notions of gender and sex come into being through repeated discursive practices that reflect deeply ingrained cultural norms. The concept of performativity, derived from Austin's theory of speech acts, is a fundamentally linguistic concept and has influenced Translation and Interpreting Studies (TIS) in major ways. TIS have made a significant contribution to the study of gender mostly in terms of the recovery of female translators and the construction of a strong tradition of both female translators and woman-identified ones.