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as understanding and the basis for informed action. Therefore, it seems imperative to develop a paradigm for primary geography that supports teachers (the very largemajority of whom are non-specialists) inmaking a distinction between these different types of knowledge. We propose that this could be ethno-geography. Ethno-(of the people and their culture) geography:

In this context, we may think of culture as acquired knowledge transmitted among groups. . . . From this concept of culture, race is not a proxy for culture and ‘ethno’ in ethno-mathematics is not a proxy for ethnic. (Gilmer 2001, 80)