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on their ethno-mathematics (D’Ambrosio 1994). Mathematics is thus a second subject in which the notions that we have discussed have been developed. While there appears to be negligible work on this topic in other subjects, we nevertheless consider this to be a fruitful avenue to explore. Ofsted (2008, 2011) has identified concerns about the nature and depth of primary teachers’ geography subject knowledge and understanding, which affects their confidence in teaching geography. Implicit in teachers’ lack of subject knowledge are the limited residual school geography they recall and a minimal or lost awareness of their personal ethno-geography (Martin 2008a, 2008b). For very many primary teachers this has never been addressed in their minimal initial teacher education programme or through continuing professional development (CPD), which has become increasingly less available (Ofsted 2011). This has evident implications for younger children’s learning. It identifies a need to address both the nature and length of geography units in initial teacher education programmes and the provision of CPD. One means of addressing this concern is to maintain the training of primary geography subject specialists. Such courses will need to engage novice teachers in developing their own connection with their personal or everyday geographies, alongside understanding children’s ethno-geographies, and to develop their under-standing of the academic structure and vocabulary of the discipline of geography. The Geographical Association in the UK has used the government-funded Action Plan for Geography (www.geographytea-chingtoday.org.uk) to develop several such initial e-based CPD pro-grammes (GA2010). This implies that novice teachers should undergo the same dialogue that they then might undertake with their pupils, between their ethno-geographies and academic geography in their own pro-grammes, as indicated in Figure 2. Conclusion Arising from the arguments presented above, we propose that equal value is given to everyday or ethno-geography and to academic geography. Everyday geographies are rational, conceptual and structured, but differently so from academic geography. While ethno-geographies are grounded personally and socially, providing the conceptual base for daily interactions, living and reflection, academic geographies provide an alternative aggregated reflection and conceptualisation, the basis for creating and using subjects. Our case is one of social justice, in which difference is encountered not as an ‘Other’ to be replacedbyonedominant, powerful discourse, but to be brought into dialogue as a democratic partner in the mutual interplay of learning in the process of evolution within and between the everyday knowledges of children and the

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