chapter  4
Broadcasting is Dead. Long Live Television: Perspectives from Europe
ByJEANETTE STEEMERS
Pages 18

This chapter discusses how different civil society norms have developed over time in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy and the Czech Republic. It aims to understand if and how these rather different normative traditions may motivate civic engagement in times of media crisis. The claim is that if a sustainable balance between market competition, government regulation and public participation cannot be struck, business turmoil and political tumult may develop into crisis of legitimacy affecting the very existence of a civilized public sphere for exchange of news and views. On the other hand, civil society norms may also motivate active citizenship and non-profit philanthropy in times of crisis. Civil society values may mitigate the consequences of market and regulation failures, but in times of crisis these influences also work the other way around. Crises of legitimacy emerge when market and government failure spill over into the political system, threatening civic confidence and general loyalty towards social institutions of state and market.