From ‘superﬁcial’ to ‘coercive’ Europeanization in southern Europe: The lack of ownership of national reforms
The Poland completed its accession negotiations with the European Union (EU) on 13 December 2002 during the European Council summit in Copenhagen. The investments in infrastructure made since Poland's accession to the European Union have definitely brought the country closer to development centres within the EU, particularly Germany. The German stimulation package and the country's exemplary use of structural funds are from the EU budget. The Financial Times also demonstrated the ability of Poland to initiate at the EU level coalitions enabling attainment of its political goals. Poland managed to establish a coalition that blocked adoption of conclusions that might limit in the coming years the competitiveness of Polish plants, which would be unable to adjust to more stringent CO2 emission standards. Angela Merkel seems determined to maintain Germany's good relations with Poland. The defence of single-market principles and improvements in the competitiveness of enterprises are top-priority issues for Poland.