The introduction of video home system (VHS) in the late 1970s contributed to the rapid expansion of home video throughout the world, while the growth of cable and satellite channels in the 1980s boosted the volume of programming available and the need for audiovisual translation (AVT) treatment. At the same time, the advent of the desktop computer revolutionized the translation process and, in particular, AVT. Digital video formats in the 1990s made external VHS players used in subtitling workstations redundant. The 1990s saw an increase in the pace of developments in the subtitling industry with concurrent technological advances. The subtitling industry also evolved as subtitling software became more sophisticated. Multinational subtitling companies took further control of the workflow by establishing their own offices in outsourcing countries, so that they controlled their operations best. Mature language technologies are often used in crowdsourcing scenarios in order to maximize and capitalize on the skills of pools of distributed workers.