This introduction includes the key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters. The contemporary international political system faces two new geopolitical realities that challenge the old geographical principles of national sovereignty. Consequently there is the potential for replacing the traditional dichotomous concepts of global governance organized hierarchically or anarchically with a network model of complex decentralized global governance performed by multiple actors. These new actors include Non-governmental organization (NGO), MNCs, organized transnational scientific networks known as epistemic communities, global policy networks, and selective international institutions that are capable of exercising discretionary behavior independently of the wishes of their dominant member states, such as United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Bank since 1987, the European Court of Justice (ECJ), and possibly the European Union Commission. The chapter focuses on need for a strong environmental presence in the international system, especially as an environmental advocate at the World Trade Organization (WTO), or as a counterweight to WTO in trade and environment disputes.