This chapter examines in detail various methods for obtaining reliable data on biomass energy consumption. It is structured to have particular relevance for the field worker looking at the feasibility of smaller-scale bioenergy projects. The emphasis is on community-level consumption in rural areas of developing countries with respect to the amount and type of biomass resource consumed and that available for project activities. Chapter sections examine suitable assessment methods, appropriate analysis and the assessment of availability of appropriate resources for satisfactory formulation of a bioenergy project. Indicators of changes in biomass consumption over time, which may alter the amount of biomass resource available for future project sustainability, are also examined. Two examples of surveys designed and implemented at community level are given. One example, of a survey designed and implemented in the field (by the non-governmental organization Alofa Tuvalu1) to assess biomass consumption in Tuvalu, will be used to illustrate some of the issues discussed in this chapter. The second example is from a research thesis (by Singh, 2013) that focuses on field research in two communities in Vanuatu and three communities in Tuvalu.