Energy and food securities are strategic issues for any country and they often supersede options to develop economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy, which in turn entail extra effort requiring public policies encompassing global responsibilities. World population, for example, is likely to increase from about 7 billion in 2014 to 9.6 billion inhabitants by 2050, in a range between 8.3 and 10.9 billion (UN, 2011). Associated with this United Nations forecast, income per capita is likely to keep increasing in the coming decades, especially in emerging countries with high population, which consequently would lead to a greater demand for food and energy per capita. Rural exodus is also a challenge for cities in developing countries, mainly in Africa and parts of Asia and Latin America. This migration process may intensify urban problems even more (e.g. slums, sewage and waste treatment, public transport, water supply, etc.) due to the lack of infrastructure and job opportunities for people excluded from their rural areas. Therefore, in order to ameliorate these problems, bioenergy must be understood in a broader context, involving energy, agriculture, environmental, social and political perspectives.