chapter  4
Research methodology
Pages 2

An empirical survey is carried out to test the hypotheses. Questionnaire with standard measurement scales is used to collect the data. Given that one of the key purposes of this study is to confirm the effect of management and innovative practices that support eco-innovation and sustainable performance, a pilot test of this research is conducted with academic experts and industrial practitioners who have substantial experience in sustainability. Aiming the scope and objectives of the research, the survey instrument is developed with seven categories as follows: general respondent and company related items, environmental aspects of product and process items, items related to environmental protection practices, items corresponding to sustainable innovation practices like investments in R&D (Ulusoy 2003), measures of economic, social and socio-economic/environment performances. Initially, comments are received for the adapted questionnaire and gradually several modifications are incorporated in the questionnaire that greatly influence respondents through proper transformation of messages that conveyed in receipt of better understanding about the question, for the response scales’ face and content validity. In addition, the feedback has guided in changing the order and wording of several survey items that are difficult. Further, this has insisted removal of questions of high complexity and unnecessary items. Besides the development of the questionnaire, the responses are structured with the five point Likert scale (1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree). The description for every scale is also elaborated and that has helped the survey’s respondents to provide the most valid, consistent and reliable responses (Chachamovich et al. 2009; Patel & Jayaram 2014). The respondents of the study are executives of the manufacturing industries in the class of General manager, Works/Finance manager, Supervisor, experts from the pollution board, environmental/industrial consultants of environmental manager/auditor and environmental policy makers such as Executives from pollution board, R&D and NGOs. Respondents and organizational characteristics are given in Appendix.