chapter  4
Pages 2

With regards to the environment, May (2008) noted that annual CO2 emissions of the BRIC countries account for approximately two thirds of the global average. The author also reported on the ecological footprints of these countries, which are considered heavy and involve considerable costs due to the damage caused by the inability of the ecosystems to provide services. However, Lawson et al. (2007) presented evidence that urbanization and industrialization are particularly responsible for environmental degradation, also including agricultural-related activities as a significant source of pressure on the environment. According to these authors, atmospheric pollution is a growing problem and a predictable growth consequence of the BRIC countries, given their current high energy intensity phase.